Citations & References#

The bibtex entries for PyAutoLens and its affiliated software packages can be found here, with example text for citing PyAutoLens in .tex format here format here and .md format here. As shown in the examples, we would greatly appreciate it if you mention PyAutoLens by name and include a link to our GitHub page!

PyAutoLens is published in the Journal of Open Source Software and its entry in the above .bib file is under the citation key pyautolens. Please also cite the MNRAS AutoLens papers ( and which are included under the citation keys Nightingale2015 and Nightingale2018.

You should also specify the non-linear search(es) you use in your analysis (e.g. Dynesty, Emcee, PySwarms, etc) in the main body of text, and delete as appropriate any packages your analysis did not use. The citations.bib file includes the citation key for all of these projects.


If you used the nested sampling algorithm Dynesty, please follow the citation instructions on the dynesty readthedocs.

Mass Models#

If you use decomposed mass models (e.g. stellar mass models like an Sersic or dark matter models like an NFW) please cite the following paper under citation key Oguri2021. Our deflection angle calculations are based on this method.

If you specifically use a decomposed mass model with the GeneralizedNFW please cite the following paper under citation key Anowar2019.

Science Papers#

The citations.bib file above also includes my work on using strong lensing to study galaxy structure. If you’re feeling kind, please go ahead and stick a citation in your introduction using citep{Nightingale2019} or [@Nightingale2019] ;).